The Effects of Deception on Maximal Strength, Goals, and Physical Self-Efficacy

  • Timothy Piper Western Illinois University
  • Steven Radlo Western Illinois University
  • Kylie Gerhardt Concordia University
  • Darice Brooks Michigan State University
  • Jessica Schnaiter Oklahoma State University
Keywords: teleoanticipation, deceptive feedback, leg press


Deceptive feedback involves offering altered performance results to athletes with the intention of eliciting greater physical output. The use of feedback and feedforward mechanisms used to predict a performance endpoint is referred to as teleoanticipation.   The interpretation of physciological and psychological effects of stimuli upon is the basis for current and future performances.  The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of false positive feedback, of varying percentages, on maximal strength, physical self-efficacy, and strength goals through the lens of teleoanticipation.  Recreational lifters (n=17) were tested for one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press scores, future goal weights (G), and physical self-efficacy (SE), over the course of two orientation sessions and five separate test sessions.  A baseline of 1RM strength was established during the first test control session (TC).  Deceptive feedback was given on the subsequent three sessions and consisted of loads that were 5% (T+5), 10% (T+10) or 15% (T+15) above the loads reported to participants during each session. The full extent of deception was revealed on the final session of testing (TF).  There were significant differences between the trials for 1RM measures; TC was significantly different from the T+5, T+10, and TF.  Results for G revealed significance for all trials compared to TC but no differences were found in self-esteem. This data suggests that deception may enhance 1 RM measures, negatively impact goal setting, but not affect physical self-efficacy.

How to Cite
Piper, T., Radlo, S., Gerhardt, K., Brooks, D., & Schnaiter, J. (2023). The Effects of Deception on Maximal Strength, Goals, and Physical Self-Efficacy. International Journal of Strength and Conditioning, 3(1).